#ISIS fighters had thousands of children. So what happens to them now?

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Thousands of children have been born or raised in the Islamic State. Now the world’s governments have to decide how and whether to reintegrate them into their societies.

As the militants retain only a tiny sliver of territory in Syria, Western countries are being forced to grapple with how to deal with minors who qualify for citizenship through their parents, including foreign fighters who carried out atrocities abroad.

A plea last week by a British ISIS bride to return to the U.K. with her infant son illustrates the conundrum.

The family of 19-year-old Shamima Begum — one of three British high school students who together abandoned their lives in east London in 2015 to marry ISIS fighters — has appealed for the U.K. government to help bring the pair home from a refugee camp. They cited the innocence of Begum’s newborn child.

Her baby is “blameless” and has “every right” to grow up in the “peace and security of this home,” the family said in a statement to ITV News just days before Begum’s son was born.

While it is not clear how deep Begum’s involvement with ISIS went, she has been quoted as saying she had no regrets about moving to Syria. Such comments have triggered a debate in Britain about whether Begum can and should be rehabilitated back into society.

On Tuesday, the U.K. government informed Begum’s family it intended to strip the teenager of her citizenship, according to her family’s lawyer.

Under international law countries are obliged to allow their nationals to return home. But European countries have been reluctant to take back home-grown fighters and their families believe they are safer outside of Europe. Britain has even gone so far as to revoke the citizenship of more than 100 ISIS fighters who had dual nationality.

British interior minister Sajid Javid wrote in an opinion piece in The Sunday Times newspaper that while he felt “compassion for any child born or brought into a conflict zone” when considering the repatriation of their parents who joined the Islamic State he has to think about “the safety and security” of children living in the U.K.

But Fawaz Gerges, a professor of Middle Eastern politics at the London School of Economics, said any country which chose to punish children for the crimes of their parents would be haunted by that decision.

“Its shortsightedness,” he said. “You cannot leave them in the desert, in the wilderness because they’re going to grow to be wild or feel the need or urge to exact revenge.”

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