Disagreement over Kurdish teams is raging within the NATO situation

Facts: PKK and the Kurds

The PKK (Partiya Karkeren Kurdistan) was based in 1978 as a revolutionary Kurdish left-wing get together, with the objective of forming a communist state within the areas of Turkey, Iraq, Syria and Iran inhabited by Kurds.

In earlier years, there had been double army coups and the introduction of martial regulation in Turkey. The Kurdish minority was not acknowledged as a separate ethnic group (they had been known as “mountain Turks” till 1990).

One of the PKK’s founders and chief, Abdullah Öcalan, fled from Turkey to Syria in 1979 and managed the motion from there.

In the mid-Eighties, the PKK, which had turn into a type of guerrilla group, carried out various assaults on Turkish targets. It was the prelude to a civil warfare that has been happening in violent waves for many years. It was most violent in the course of the years 1991-93 and has claimed tens of hundreds of lives. Both sides within the battle are judged to have dedicated various abuses.

In polarization, many Kurds have been pushed to assist the PKK, though they don’t essentially sympathize with the group’s long-term objectives.

Since the flip of the millennium, a number of makes an attempt have been made for peace talks between the Turkish state and the Kurds. They have at occasions resulted within the state agreeing to ease sure legal guidelines, however every time they’ve in the end collapsed. From 2015, and the accession of President Erdogan, the warfare and the crackdown on Kurds within the southeast have as a substitute escalated.

Abdullah Öcalan was arrested in Kenya within the late Nineteen Nineties and sentenced to demise by a army tribunal, however it was later commuted to life imprisonment. He is serving it on a jail island exterior Istanbul.

Source: Nationalencyklopedin, Landguiden / Utrikespolitiska institutet

Sweden and Finland “support the terrorist organizations PKK and YPG”, stated Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlüt Cavusoglu, when Turkey went out and questioned that the Nordic nations can be allowed to be a part of NATO – a message repeated by President Recep Tayyip Erdogan on Monday evening.

“None of the countries have a clear stance against terrorist organizations,” Erdogan stated.

Sweden’s Foreign Minister Ann Linde (S) states that she “of course never ever” had any conferences with the PKK and says she desires to clear up any potential misunderstandings.

The Kurdish guerrilla group PKK is branded terrorist by Turkey, the USA and the EU – and thus additionally Sweden.

The YPG, alternatively, took the lead because the Western allies within the warfare effort in opposition to the terrorist motion IS in Syria.

Different sides in Syria

Turkey has had main issues with the US-led coalition of Western nations standing behind the Kurdish-led Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) within the warfare in Syria, the place the designated YPG (People’s Defense Units) is by far the most important phalanx. Among different issues, the SDF recaptured the IS stronghold Raqqa.

The YPG is an armed department of the Kurdish get together PYD (Democratic Union Party), which is the most important political get together amongst Syrian Kurds. The two branches, like many Kurdish organizations, have hyperlinks to the PKK.

Turkey equates the YPG with the PKK. Both authorities representatives and state-controlled media discuss with them as one and the identical entity.

Turkey backed different insurgent teams in Syria. In 2018, they went on the offensive in opposition to SDF in northern Syria. In apply, this meant that NATO colleagues Turkey and the United States ended up on reverse sides. On not less than one event, US troops had been shot down by Turkish artillery aimed toward their allies.

Want extra expulsions?

Turkey is in a number of methods dissatisfied with the bilateral relationship with Sweden, Paul Levin, head of the Institute for Turkey Studies at Stockholm University, instructed TT shortly after President Recep Tayyip Erdogan made the primary objection on Friday.

– It is then primarily in regards to the Kurdish query and the view of the PKK, Levin stated.

He suspected that Erdogan needed extra listening to and concessions relating to the battle with the Kurds.

– From Sweden, it may very well be that you simply need few individuals deported, for instance those that are affiliated with the PKK. They wish to see a more durable grip on the PKK.

The EU positioned the PKK on a terrorist listing just a few months after the terrorist assaults in New York in September 2001. There, the group was positioned along with, amongst others, Palestinian Hamas, Lebanese Hezbollah and the Colombian ELN.

In latest years, Sweden has on a number of events despatched PKK members suspected of crimes in Turkey to Turkey.

“Strong Swedish presence”

The PKK has a “strong and open” operation in Sweden, says the Turkish authorities’s spokesman Ibrahim Kalin in accordance with the Turkish authorities publication Daily Sabah:

– It is obvious what should occur: They should cease permitting PKK teams, actions, organizations, people and different sorts of presence to exist of their nations.

The identical article factors out how Swedish ministers have met with varied high-ranking YPG representatives.

In the summer season of 2019, a number of Swedish politicians, together with Minister of Defense Peter Hultqvist (S) after which V chief Jonas Sjöstedt, had been identified in a Turkish report on the PKK’s “expansion in Europe”. Hultqvist was accused of promising care to combatants from the YPG.

S put down one foot

The conceptual confusion is underlined by the proven fact that individuals who’ve a everlasting residence allow in Sweden have been denied citizenship as a result of they’ve been lively inside SDF, YPG or PYD, which Echo in Swedish Radio revealed final summer season.

The Swedish authorities has persistently praised the SDF’s sacrifices within the warfare.

And in November, the Social Democrats introduced that the get together desires to deepen its cooperation with the PYD.

“The fact that freedom fighters who have fought or sympathized with the YPG / YPJ or PYD are classified by certain state actors as terrorists is unacceptable”, introduced S-party secretary Tobias Baudin then.

Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlüt Cavusoglu will not be on the identical wavelength as Swedish Foreign Minister Ann Linde. The image was taken on the OSCE assembly in Sweden in December. Stock Photography.

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